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云锣

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:23:38

  云锣,又名云璈。打击乐器。唐宋两代的诗词中已有演奏云璈的描述。宋苏汉臣所绘《货郎图》、山西永乐宫元代壁画和三清殿斗拱间的装饰画中均绘有云锣(《中国音乐史图鉴》IV—69、IV—70)。历代云锣所用小锣十至十四面。早期云锣多用于道教生活,其后流传于民间。
  传统云锣多由十面小锣组成。锣面无脐,边缘被垂直于锣面的锣沿所固定,锣边钻有小孔,用绳系于装着木格的特制木架上,因最上方的一面小锣(名“高工锣”)不常用,故民间又称“九音锣”。小锣大小相同,面径均为8厘米,因厚薄有别,故能发出高低不同的音响。音色清晰明朗,音域分别为g1—d3、a1—d3,有一个多八度。十面小锣系在木架上,架子分为三扇,左右两扇各分三格,中间一扇四格,三扇都插在一个木柄上,成一整体,架高约52厘米。云锣的音位排列,因地区、乐种和使用场合的不同而各异。北京智化寺“京音乐”所用云锣正调的排列与清代《律吕正义后编》(成书于公元1764年)所载云锣音位相符,是较古老的排列法。“十番鼓”所用云锣的音位是民间较流行的排列法。演奏形式有两种,一种是左手持木架柄或将柄抵在桌上,右手用单棰(竹片制把,牛角制头)敲击,这种奏法花点较少,另一种是卸下木架柄,将三扇木格上端垫高,斜置于桌面上,双手持棰敲击。在“苏南吹打”,“十番锣鼓”等器乐合奏中,云锣多奏旋律的骨干音,有很强的色彩性。“西安鼓乐”则用两架云锣,分别装在特制的底座上,面对面依一定角度立置于桌上,由一人执棰敲击,成为独具特色的双云锣演奏。本世纪六十年代以来,音乐工作者和乐器研制者不断对传统云锣进行改革。1963年,济南部队前卫文工团赵行如同山东周村鲁东乐器厂合作,在民间九音锣基础上,参照山东曲阜孔庙编钟形式,首先制成二十九音云锣,音域g—f3。北京民族乐器厂制作的三十六音云锣,音域#c—c3。沈阳军区文工团田德忠和鲁东乐器厂合作,在二十九音云锣基础上,制出三十八音云锣,音域c1—c4。此外,还有十五、二十六和三十七音云锣。
  改革云锣所用铜的合金成分与传统响铜有别,其音质更纯正结实。演奏时使用软硬两种锣棰,每种两支一副,由一人左右手各执一棰站立演奏。软棰用软橡胶制成或用较小的京锣棰,发音柔和、优美;硬棰用牛角或硬橡胶制成,发音强烈、明亮,常在高音区使用,演奏快速旋律很有光彩。奏法有单击、双击、滚击、轻击、重击或大跳等手法,可奏双音、琶音,双手各执两棰同时分击,可奏出四音和弦。改革云锣既可演奏旋律,也可为乐曲作各种节奏型伴奏,如作华彩乐段独奏,可获得强烈而辉煌的音响效果。其四音和弦,声如宏钟,庄严雄伟。乐曲有《水库凯歌》、《旭日东升》、《渔舟凯歌》、《钢水奔流》等。

  The yunluo( literally "cloud gongs" or "cloud of gongs") is atraditional Chinese musical instrument. It was also called yún'áo in ancient times.
  The yunluo is a set of usually ten small tuned gongs mounted in a wooden frame, with each gong being about 9-12 cm in diameter, and the height of the frame being about 52 cm. The yunluo's gongs are generally of equal diameter but different thicknesses; the thicker gongs produce a higher pitch. It is often used in wind and percussion ensembles in northern China. Old drawings also depict a smaller yunluo with just five gongs, which was held by a handle by one hand and played with the other.
  A modernised yunluo has been developed from the traditional yunluo for use in the large modern     Chinese orchestra. It is much larger with 29 or more gongs of different diameters. Its height is about 2m including its two legs on which it stands on the floor (the frame itself is about half its height); its width is about 1.4 m.
  The traditional yunluo is sometimes referred to as the shimianluo ( literally "ten faced gongs") to distinguish it from the modern redesigned yunluo.
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