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三弦

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:22:36

  三弦:又称“弦子”,我国传统弹拨乐器。柄很长,音箱方形,两面蒙皮,弦三根,侧抱于怀演奏。音色粗犷、豪放。可以独奏、合奏或伴奏,普遍用于民族器乐、戏曲音乐和说唱音乐。
  早在公元前214年,秦始皇灭六国完成统一后,就征发黎民百姓去边疆修筑有名的万里长城,为了调剂繁重的劳役,我国北方各民族人民,曾把一种有柄的小摇鼓加以改造,在上面栓了丝弦,制成了圆形、皮面、长 柄、可以弹拨的乐器,当时称为“弦鼗”。这就是三弦的前身,最早在北方边疆的军队中使用。清代毛其龄《西河词话》曰:“三弦起于秦时,本三十鼓鼓之制而改形易响,谓之鼓鼓,唐时乐人多习之,世以为胡乐,非也”。
  唐崔令钦《教坊记》中出现过三弦之名,但其型制却不明,唐代十部伎中皆无三弦。元朝时,三弦盛传于中原,是元曲的主要伴奏乐器,当时曾称弦索。元王实甫词清沈远曲之《北西厢弦索谱》即以三弦为伴奏乐器。
  四川广元罗家桥南宋墓出土伎乐石雕中有演奏三弦的图像,河南焦作西冯村金墓出上有演奏三弦的乐俑,辽宁凌源富家屯元墓壁画中有演奏三弦的图像,说明三弦在宋元时期已广泛流传于全国各地。
  三弦是我国传统民族弹拨乐器。因张有三弦而得名。受不同地域、民族及文化风俗影响,三弦历来有多种形制,大致可归为大、小两种三弦。20世纪50年代以后,一些乐器改良家和三弦演奏家在这两种三弦基础上进行改良,取得很大成功。

  The sanxian is a Chinese lute — a three-stringed fretlessplucked musical instrument. It has a long fingerboard, and the body is traditionally made from snake skin stretched over a rounded rectangular resonator. It is made in several sizes for different purposes and in the late 20th century a four-stringed version was also developed. The northern sanxian is generally larger, at about 122 cm in length, while southern versions of the instrument are usually about 95 cm in length.
  The sanxian has a dry, somewhat percussive tone and loud volume similar to the banjo. The larger sizes have a range of three octaves. It is primarily used as an accompanying instrument, as well as in ensembles andorchestras of traditional Chinese instruments, though solo pieces and concertos also exist. The sanxian is used in nanguan and Jiangnan sizhu ensembles, as well as many other folk and classical ensembles.
  Traditionally the instrument is plucked with a thin, hard plectrum made from animal horn but today most players use a plastic plectrum (similar to a guitar pick) or, alternatively, their fingernails. This use of fingers to pluck the instrument often shares technique with that of the pipa and is most commonly used in performance of sanxian arrangements of works traditionally written for the pipa. This allows for pipatechniques such as tremolo to be used. Other techniques for sanxian include the use of harmonics and hitting the skin of the instrument with the plectra or fingernail .
  Although the sanxian has historically been one of the most popular Chinese folk instruments (particularly for accompanying singing), a major decline in the number of sanxian players in classical contexts has been the cause of great concern among enthusiasts of the instrument[citation needed]. As many Chinese orchestras exclude the sanxian, many people are unwilling to learn this instrument. Even in China, very few conservatories offer majors in sanxian, and the small number of students of this instrument, as compared to the guzheng or pipa, for example, have led to further concerns that the instrument's rich playing traditions may be lost forever. One reason for this is the fact that, unlike the shamisen in Japan, the sanxian lacks an original solo repertoire of its own, with most sanxian solo pieces being arrangements of pipa melodies, as in the case of "Big Waves Wash Against the Sands". For the most part, use of the sanxian in the Chinese orchestra is as a provider of a de facto bass line. Also, as the neck of the da sanxian is particularly long, there is a great deal of limitation on how virtuosic a sanxian player can be. This is not an issue in the smaller saxian, which are closer in size to the Japanese shamisen.
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