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箜篌

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:22:27

  箜篌是十分古老的弹弦乐器,最初称“坎侯”或“空侯”,文献中有“卧箜篌、竖箜篌、凤首箜篌”三种形制。
  箜篌历史悠久、源远流长,音域宽广、音色柔美清澈,表现力强。古代除宫廷雅乐使用外,在民间也广泛流传。现常用于独奏、重奏和为歌舞伴奏,并在大型民族管弦乐队中应用。箜篌在古代有卧箜篌、竖箜篌、凤首箜篌三种形制《史记·封神书》:“于是塞南越,祷祠太一,后土,始用乐舞,益召歌儿,作二十五弦及空侯琴瑟自此起。”唐代杜佑《通典》:“汉武帝使乐人侯调所作……今按其形,似瑟而小,七弦,用拨弹之如琵琶也。”此属琴瑟类的卧箜篌。从甘肃省嘉峪关魏晋墓砖书看,其面板上没有品柱。竖箜篌,汉代自西域传入,后被称为“胡箜篌”。《隋书音乐志》记载:“今曲项琵琶、竖头箜篌之徒,并出自西域,非华夏之乐器。”
  从古代大量演奏图像中所绘的竖箜篌和日本奈良正庵院保存的我国唐代漆箜篌和螺箜篌残件看,它的音箱设在向上弯曲的曲木上。凤首箜篌形制似与竖箜篌相近,又常以凤首为装饰而得名,其音箱设在下方横木的部位,向上的曲木则设有轸或起轸的作用,用以紧弦。正如《乐唐书》所载:“凤首箜篌,有项如轸”,杜佑《通典》:“凤首箜篌,头有轸”。有轸或无轸的图像在敦煌壁书中均有所见。凤首箜篌自印度传入,用于隋唐燕乐中的天竺乐,至宋代隋炀《乐书》中仍绘有当时存在的多种形制的箜篌,明代以后失传。
  据考证,箜篌流传至今已有两千多年的历史了。箜篌在古代除宫廷乐队使用外,在民间也广泛流传。在中国盛唐(618-907)时期,随着经济文化的飞速发展,箜篌演奏艺术也达到了相当高的水平,也就是在这个时期,中国古代的箜篌先后传入日本、朝鲜等邻国。在日本东良大寺的寺院中,至今还保存着两架唐代箜篌残品。但是,这件古老的乐器,从十四世纪后期便不再流行,以致慢慢消失了,人们只能在以前的壁画和浮雕上看到一些箜篌的图样。
  为了使这消失多年的乐器重现舞台,从上个世纪五十年代起,中国音乐工作者和乐器制作师们进行了大量的研究工作,他们根据古书的记载和保存下来的古代壁画的图形,设计试制了几种类型的箜篌,但是由于这些箜篌存在着许多不足,所以没有推广和流传开来。到了上个世纪八十年代初,一种新型箜篌--雁柱箜篌被研制出来。它的结构比较完善、科学,音响具有民族特点,因而被推广用于音乐实践。

  The konghou is an ancient Chinese harp. The konghou, also known askanhou,went extinct sometime in the Ming Dynasty. It has been revived in the 20th century as a double bridge harp. The modern version of the instrument does not resemble the ancient one, but its shape is similar to Western concert harps.
  The wo-konghou, or horizontal konghou, was first mentioned in written texts in the Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC). The su-konghou, or vertical konghou first appeared in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220AD). The phoenix-headedkonghou was introduced from India in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420 AD).
  The konghou was used to play yayue (court music) in the Kingdom of Chu. During the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) thekonghou was used in qingshangyue (a music genre). Beginning in the Sui Dynasty (581-618), the konghou was also used inyanyue (banquet music). Konghou playing was most prevalent in the Sui and Tang dynasties. It was generally played in rites and ceremonies and gradually prevailed among the ordinary people.
  The Konghou was revived in the 20th century and this instrument resembles a Western concert harp. The main feature that distinguishes the contemporary konghou from the Western harp is that the modern konghou's strings are folded over to make two rows, which enables players to use advanced playing techniques such as vibrato and bending tones. Paired strings on opposite sides of the instrument are tuned to the same note. They start from a tuning peg and beyond the playing area travel over two bridges on opposite sides of the instrument, and are then fixed at the far end to opposite sides of a freely moving lever so that depressing one of the string pairs raises the pitch of the other. The two rows of strings also make it suitable for playing swift rhythms and overtones.
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