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来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:22:21

  阮,古代称秦琵琶、阮咸,现代称阮。弹弦乐器。
  汉武帝时(前140—前87)已有。据东汉傅玄《琵琶赋》序所载,是当时乐工参照琴、筝、筑、箜篌等乐器创制而成。圆形音箱、直柄、十二柱(品位)、四弦。汉时称秦琵琶。东晋(317—420)“竹林七贤”中的阮咸善弹此乐器。在三国(吴)青釉瓷仓陶塑上有其图象,在南京西善桥南朝墓砖刻画和江苏丹阳南齐墓砖刻画中可见阮咸演奏图象(《中国音乐史图鉴》Ⅱ—92至Ⅱ—99)。唐武则天时(684—701)称其为阮咸。《旧唐书·音乐志》:“阮咸,亦秦琵琶也,而项长过于今制,列十有三柱。武太后时,蜀人蒯朗于古墓中得之,晋《竹林七贤图》所弹与此类,因谓之阮咸。咸,晋世实以善琵琶知音律称”。唐代用于清商乐和西凉乐中,并传至日本。
  传统四弦阮音域窄,音阶不完备。1953年以来,中央广播民族乐团王仲丙不断对阮进行改革研制,取得突出成果。现代制作的阮,琴头、琴颈和音箱框板用红木、花梨木制,琴颈贴指板。面板、背板用桐木制。琴头饰如意或龙头骨雕。有十七至二十四品位,按十二平均律排列。置四个机械弦轴,弦的另一端系于缚弦上,面板中间偏上方有两个圆形或弯月形音孔。品种有大阮、中阮、小阮和低阮,包括高音、中音、次中音和低音四个声部,形成一族系列乐器。
  小阮,有效弦长(山口至缚弦)41、音箱直径29.5厘米;中阮,有效弦长51、音箱直径35.5厘米;大阮,有效弦长69、音箱直径50厘米;低阮,有效弦长104、音箱直径78厘米。大、中、小阮以五度关系定弦。小阮为g、d1、a1、e2;中阮为G、d、a、e1;大阮为C、G、d、a1,低阮四度定弦为E1、A1、D、G、。常用音域为:小阮g—e3,中阮G—e2,大阮C—a1,低阮E1—a。
  1977年以后,改革制成的阮品种有:双层共鸣箱中阮,电扩音中阮,面、背板有拱度的大阮,无品阮,六弦阮。
  演奏时,左手持琴按弦取音,右手用假指甲或执拨片弹弦。右手指法有弹、挑、双弹、双挑、勾、抹、扣、划、轮、拂、分、摇、扫、滚等三十多种,左手有泛、打、带、滑、推、拉、吟、绞等十余种指法。

  The ruan is a Chinese plucked string instrument. It is a lute with a fretted neck, a circular body, and four strings. Its four strings were formerly made of silk but since the 20th century they have been made of steel (flatwound for the lower strings). The modern ruan has 24 frets with 12 semitones on each string, which has greatly expanded its range from a previous 13 frets. The frets are commonly made of ivory or in recent times of metal mounted on wood. The metal frets produce a brighter tone as compared to the ivory frets. It is sometimes called ruanqin , particularly in Taiwan.
  With a history of over 2,000 years, the ruan has gone by several names: the qin pipa, ruanxian  and ruan .According to the Pipa Annals by Fu Xuan of the Western Jin Dynasty, the ruan was designed after revision of other Chinese plucked string instruments of the day such as the Chinese zither, zheng and zhu,or konghou,the Chineseharp.Another suggestion is that it was descended from an instrument called xiantao which was constructed by labourers on the Great Wall of China during the late Qin Dynasty (hence Qin pipa) using strings stretched over a pellet drum.
  In ancient China, the ruan was called Qin pipa (Qin Dynasty, 221 BC - 206 BC). Before the Song Dynasty, pipa was a generic term for a number plucked chordophones, and what distinguished Qin pipa from other pipas is that the Qin pipa had a long, straight neck with a round sound box while the pipa is pear-shaped. The name of "pipa" is associated with "tantiao" , a right hand techniques of playing a plucked string instrument. "Pi" , which means "tan" , is the downward movement of plucking the string. "Pa" , which means "tiao" , is the upward movement of plucking the string.
  The present name of the Qin pipa, which is "ruan", was not given until the Tang Dynasty (8th century). During the reign of Empress Wu Zetian  (about 684-704 AD), a copper instrument that looked like the Qin pipa was discovered in an ancient tomb inSichuan . It had 13 frets and a round sound box. It was believed that it was the instrument which the Eastern Jin  musician Ruan Xian  loved to play. Ruan Xian was a scholar in the Three Kingdoms Eastern Jin Dynasty period (3rd century). He and other six scholars disliked the corruption government, so they gathered in a bamboo grove in Shanyang ( now in Henan province). They drank, wrote poems, played music and enjoyed the simply life. The group was known as the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove .Since Ruan Xian was an expert and famous in playing an instrument that looked like the Qin pipa, the instrument was named after him when the copper Qin pipa was found in a tomb during the Tang Dynasty. The ruan was used to be called ruanxian , but today it is shortened to ruan .
  Also during the Tang Dynasty, a ruanxian was brought to Japan from China. Now this ruanxian is still stored in Shosoin of the Nara National Museum in Japan. The ruanxian was made of red sandalwood and decorated with mother of pearl inlay. The ancient ruanxian shows that the look of today'sruan has not changed much since the 8th century.
  Nowadays, although the ruan was never as popular as the pipa, the ruan has been divided into several smaller and better-known instruments within the recent few centuries, such as yueqin (“moon” lute,) and qinqin (Qin [Dynasty] lute,) . The short-necked yueqin, with no sound holes, is now used primarily inBeijing opera accompaniment. The long-necked qinqin is a member of both Cantonese  and Chaozhou  ensembles.
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