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柳琴

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:22:15

  柳琴,弹弦乐器。又称柳叶琴、金刚腿、土琵琶。属唐代以来在民间流传的梨形音箱弹弦乐器之一种,其外形、构造、奏法均与琵琶相似。最早的柳琴,构造非常简单,由于柳琴的外形土里土气,非常民间化,中国老百姓亲切地称它“土琵琶”。
  柳琴原是流行于鲁、皖、苏一带的民间乐器,用作柳琴戏、泗州戏等地方戏曲的伴奏及弹奏简单歌曲,发音响亮宏大,音色高亢刚劲,富有浓郁的乡土气息。经过长时间的发展,现已发展为独奏乐器,并常用于民族乐队中的高音乐器。  
  最早的柳琴,构造较简单,只有两条丝弦,7个用高粱秆做成的品位,音域很窄,仅有一个半八度,还不便转调。当时的琴体较大,演奏时有一竹筒套在食指上,用拇指捏紧,靠手腕甩动而拨弦发音,演奏形式别具一格。后以竹套质脆易裂,使用挖空的牛角圆筒代替。   
  1958年底,第一代新型柳琴--三弦柳琴诞生了。三弦柳琴由原来的两根弦变成了三根弦,音柱也由7个增加到24个。跟土琵琶相比,新型柳琴扩大了音域,方便了转调,音色也由闷噪变得明亮起来。70年代,出现了第二代新型柳琴--四弦高音柳琴。第二代新型柳琴除了在琴弦和音柱的数量上又有所增加外,最主要的变化是用竹子代替了高粱秆,用钢丝代替了丝弦。这些改革大大改善了柳琴各方面的性能,丰富了表现力。从而使柳琴结束了200余年来仅仅作为伴奏乐器的历史,走上了独奏乐器的发展道路。
  如今,柳琴在中国音乐表演的领域里扮演着各种各样的角色。在民族乐队中 ,柳琴是弹拨类乐器组的高音乐器,有独特的声响效果,常常演奏高音区重要的主旋律。由于它的音色不易被其他乐器所掩盖和融合,有时还担任技巧性很高的华彩段落的演奏。另外,柳琴还具有西洋乐器曼陀林的音响效果,与西洋乐队合作,别有风味。

  The liuqin is a four-stringed Chinese mandolin with a pear-shaped body. It is small in size, almost a miniature copy of another Chinese plucked musical instrument, the pipa. The range of its voice is much higher than the pipa, and it has its own special place in Chinese music, whether in orchestral music or in solo pieces. This has been the result of a modernization in its usage in recent years, leading to a gradual elevation in status of the liuqin from an accompaniment instrument in folk Chinese opera,like liuqin opera and sizhou opera in northern Jiangsu, southern Shandong and Anhui, to an instrument well-appreciated for its unique tonal and acoustic qualities. The position of the instrument is lower than the pipa, being held diagonally like the Chinese ruan and yueqin. Like the ruan and unlike the pipa its strings are elevated by a bridge and the soundboard has two prominent soundholes. Finally, the instrument is played with a pick with similar technique to both ruan and yueqin, whereas the pipa is played with the fingers. Therefore, the liuqin is most commonly played and doubled by those with ruan and yueqin experience.
  Historically, the liuqin was commonly made of willow wood, while the professionals used versions constructed with a higher-quality red sandalwood or rosewood. In contemporary versions, however, the front board is made of tong wood  and for the reverse side, of red sandalwood, as comparable to historical types.
  The liuqin has gone by various names, firstly the liuyeqin , meaning willow-leaf-shaped instrument. This was the original term for the liuqin, which is visibly an abbreviation of the term liuyeqin. The other reference to the liuqin is the tu pipa , literally meaning unrefined pipa, because of the aforementioned diminutive size and resemblance of the liuqin to the pipa.
  Throughout its history, the liuqin came in variations ranging from two (which only had one and a half[clarification needed] octaves) to four strings. However, the earliest precursor of the modern four-stringed version of the instrument appeared and experienced popularity during the Qing Dynasty . This version had two strings, and was only used for accompaniment purposes in traditional operas, as mentioned before.
  The two-stringed liuqin remained in use for much of dynastic China from the Qing Dynasty until the late 20th century. With the modernization of traditional Chinese music in 1970s, the four-stringed liuqin was developed as an improvement to its musical range, and the body of the instrument was enlarged to allow the player to handle the instrument with greater ease.
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