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高胡

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:21:36

  高胡,高音二胡简称。拉弦乐器。
  本世纪二十年代,广东音乐家吕文成(1898—1981)在二胡基础上改革而成,将丝弦改为钢丝弦,采用两膝夹持琴筒演奏姿势。
  形制与二胡基本相同,琴杆长80厘米,琴头多雕龙头或呈弯月形。
  琴筒较细,多为圆形,长13、前口外径8.6厘米,蒙蟒皮,后敞口、无音窗。用红木或加黄杨木片拼粘后旋制。也有扩音筒式喇叭形琴筒。本世纪七十年代以来,改革制成扁圆筒、扁八方筒高胡和三弦高胡。
  定弦比二胡高四或五度:a1、e2或 g1、d2,常用音域 a1—e4或g—d4,独奏时可再扩展五度。扁八方筒高胡系由中央音乐学院王国潼和北京民族乐器厂满瑞兴研制,它的琴筒前口小,后口大,中部呈细腰形。琴筒内加装长10.2、直径4.2厘米的小竹筒,使高把位的发音格外明亮。
  演奏时,一般多用双膝夹持琴筒,以利于消除杂音。
  如果在琴码下方安装竹质音罩,罩内放置厚呢料类的“控制垫”,再在后口下方约三分之一处加装一软质木块,也能获得良好的音质。高胡擅长演奏抒情、活泼、华丽的曲调。是演奏广东音乐、潮州音乐和伴奏粤剧、潮剧的主要乐器。在民族乐队中属高音拉弦乐器,尤宜于演奏装饰性的华彩乐段。近代创作的独奏曲有《双声恨》、《雨打芭蕉》、《鸟投林》、《平湖秋月》等。中华人民共和国成立后创作的独奏曲有《珠江之恋》、《夕愿》、《故乡情景》、《春到田间》等。

  The gaohu ( also called yuehu ) is a Chinese bowed string instrument developed from the erhu in the 1920s by the musician and composer Lü Wencheng (1898–1981) and used inCantonese music and Cantonese opera. It belongs to the huqin family of instruments, together with the zhonghu, erhu,banhu, jinghu, and sihu; its name means "high-pitched huqin". It is the leading instrument of Cantonese music and opera ensembles. Well known pieces for the gaohu include Bu Bu Gao (,Higher Step By Step) and Ping Hu Qiu Yue (Autumn Moon On Calm Lake).
  The gaohu is similar in construction to the erhu but has a slightly smaller soundbox, commonly circular, and is tuned afourth higher, to G4 and D5. Whereas most huqin are placed on top of the left thigh, the traditional gaohu is played with the soundbox held in between the knees. It has a brighter and lighter tone as compared to the erhu. It has two strings and its soundbox is covered on the front (playing) end with snakeskin (from a python). Since the soundbox is so small, the overall sound of the "gaohu" is quiet
  Although originally a regional instrument used only in Cantonese music, the gaohu (in different forms and played placed on the leg, as the erhu) is used in the modern large Chinese orchestra, as part of the string family, along with the erhu, zhonghu, banhu, cello, and double bass.
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