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二胡

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:21:28

  二胡始于唐朝,至今已有一千多年的历史。它最早发源于我国古代北部地区的一个少数民族,那时叫“奚琴”。宋朝学者陈蜴在《乐书》中记载“奚琴本胡乐也……”唐代诗人岑参所载“中军置酒饮归客,胡琴琵琶与羌笛”的诗句,说明胡琴在唐代已开始流传,而且是中西方拉弦乐器和弹拔乐器的总称。
  到了宋代,又将胡琴取名为“嵇琴”。宋代末学者陈元靓在《事林广记》中这样记载:嵇琴本嵇康所制,故名“嵇琴”。宋代大学者沈括在《补笔谈·乐律》中记载:“熙宁中,宫宴,教坊伶人徐衍奏嵇琴,方进酒而一弦绝,衍更不易琴,只用一弦终其曲。”说明在北宋时代已有很高的演奏水平。徐衍为皇帝大臣们演奏”嵇琴”时,断了一根弦,仍然用另一根弦奏完曲.没有娴熟的技艺是做不到的。后来沈括在《梦溪笔谈》中又记载“马尾胡琴随汉东,曲声犹自怨单于。弯弓莫射去中雁,归雁如今不寄出。”说明在北宋时已有了马尾的胡琴。
  元朝《元史·礼乐志》所载“胡琴制如火不思,卷顾龙首,二弦用弓捩之,弓之弦以马尾”进一步阐述了胡琴的制作原理。到了明清时代胡琴已传遍大江南北,始成为民间戏曲伴奏和乐器合奏的主要演奏乐器。
  到了近代,胡琴才更名为二胡。半个多世纪以来,二胡演奏水平已进入旺盛时期。刘天华先生是现代派的始祖,他借鉴了西方乐器的演奏手法和技巧,大胆、科学地将二胡定位为五个把位,从而充扩了二胡的音域范围,丰富了表现力,确立了新的艺术内涵。由此,二胡从民间伴奏中脱颖出来,成为独特的独奏乐器,也为以后走进大雅之堂的音乐厅和音乐院校奠定了基础。
  新中国成立以后,民族、民间音乐发展很快,为了大力发掘民间艺人的艺术珍宝,华彦钧、刘北茂等民间艺人的二胡乐曲经过整理被灌成唱片,使二胡演奏艺术如雨后春笋迅猛发展起来。上世纪50年代和60年代先后涌现了张锐、张韶、王乙等为代表的一批二胡教育家和演奏家,在他们的影响下,又培养出了新的二胡演奏家闵惠芬、王国潼等。二胡作曲家刘文金的《长城随想曲》等将二胡的性能超常发挥,并刻意创新,使二胡焕发出新的生机和异彩。
  补充:据《中国文化史三百题》提供资料,宋代是外来乐器与中原文化融合发展的第二阶段。宋元明清时期,随着戏曲、曲艺的发展,民间乐器随着“勾栏”“瓦舍”的兴起而发展了自己的伴奏乐器。其中最主要的乐器是源自蒙古、西域的马尾胡琴(又称二弦琴),经与前朝留下的嵇琴、轧筝融合,创制出新颖的胡琴。这一乐器充分标志中国弓弦乐器走向成熟。后来,由于地方戏唱腔风格需要,胡琴又逐渐分化,出现配合秦腔、豫剧需要的板胡,京剧、汉剧需要的京胡、京二胡,河南坠子需要的坠胡,广东粤剧需要的高胡,潮剧需要的椰胡,湖南花鼓用的大筒,蒙古说唱用的四胡,川剧用的盖板子,河南越调用的四弦,福建莆田戏用的枕头琴,侗戏用的牛腿琴,壮剧用的马骨琴,晋剧用的二股弦等等弓弦乐器。所以,二胡实际上是这众多的弓弦乐器中的一种,它的得名远远后于胡琴。所以说“二胡”始于唐朝是不准确的,应该说“胡琴”始于唐朝。

  The urheen begins in the Tang Dynasty, until now already some more than 1000 years history.It originated most early in our country ancient times north a local national minority, was called “the Xi qin” at that time.Song Dynasty scholar Chen Yi records “Xi qin this Hu Le in "Happy Book" also ......” the Tang Dynasty poet Cen senate to carry “the armed forces to arrange a banquet drinks person returning from abroad, Chinese violin pipa and bamboo flute” the verse, showed the Chinese violin started in the Tang Dynasty to spread, moreover is the Western bowed instrument and the ball pulls out the musical instrument always to call.  To Song Dynasty, also names the Chinese violin is “the Ji qin”.Song Dynasty superficial study Chen Yuan dresses up in "Matter Lin Guang Records" records like this: Ji Qinben Ji Kang makes, therefore “Ji qin”.Song Dynasty scholar Shen Kuo in "Makes up Converses in writing · Happy Law" to record: “The bright rather, the palace feast, instruction office actor Xu Yan plays the Ji qin, but only then urges somebody to drink a string certainly, spreads out not the easy qin, only uses a string end its tune.” The explanation had the very high performance level in the Northern Song Dynasty time.When Emperor Xu Yanwei ministers' plays” the Ji qin”, broke a string, still used another string to play the tune. The adept technique has not been cannot achieve.Afterwards Shen Kuo "Conversed in writing in Dream Brook" records “the horse's tail Chinese violin along with the Chinese east, bent sound still resentment Chanyu.Bends the bow not shoots the wild goose, turns over to the wild goose not to mail out now.” Explanation when Northern Song Dynasty had the horse's tail Chinese violin.
  Yuan Dynasty "Yuan history · Ritual music Will" carries “the Chinese violin system like fire not to think, curls Gu Longshou, two strings with bow lie it, string of the bow further elaborated the Chinese violin manufacture principle by the horse's tail”.Has spread over north Chiangnan to a bright peaceful and orderly times generation of Chinese violin, the beginning becomes the folk drama accompaniment and the musical instrument instrumental ensemble's main performance musical instrument.  To the modern times, the Chinese violin only then changed the name as the urheen.Since more than half centuries, the urheen performance level entered the exuberant time.Mr. Liu Tianhua is modernist school's first ancestor, he has profited from the Western musical instrument performance technique and the skill, bold, the urheen localization is scientifically five the position, thus expanded the urheen range scope sufficiently, has enriched the expressive force, has established the new artistic connotation.From this, the urheen escapes Ying from the folk accompaniment to come out, becomes the unique solo musical instrument, also will enter the place of refinement music hall for later and music colleges and universities has laid the foundation.  After new China is founded, national, the folk music development is very quick, in order to excavate the folk entertainer's artistic treasure vigorously, Hua Yanjun, Liu Beimao and so on the folk entertainer's urheen music is filled after the reorganization the phonograph record, causes the urheen performance art like mushroom growth swift and violent development.On the century 50's and the 60's have emerged Zhang Rui, Zhang Shao, the king class B successively for representative's one group of urheen educationalist and the concert performer, under theirs influence, also trained the new urheen concert performer to pity Whiffen, Wang Guotong and so on.Urheen composer Liu Wenjin "the Great Wall Capriccio" and so on the urheen performance superior display, and innovates sedulously, causes the urheen to glow the new vitality and the extraordinary splendor.
  The supplement - - provides the material according to "Chinese Cultural history 300 Topics", Song Dynasty is the external musical instrument and the area south of Yellow River culture fusion development second stage.While Song Yuan Ming and Qing Dynasties time, along with drama, acrobatics development, folk musical instrument “banister” “tile-roofed house” emerged has developed own accompaniment musical instrument.The in which most main musical instrument is the source from Mongolian, the western region horse's tail Chinese violin (called two string qins), after the Ji qin which stays behind with the previous dynasty, roll over the zheng fusion, formulates the novel Chinese violin.This musical instrument symbolized fully the China stringed musical instrument moves towards maturely.Afterwards, as a result of the local opera melody of an aria style need, the Chinese violin split up gradually, appears coordinates board Hu who Shaanxi opera, the Henan opera needed, the jinghu, the Beijing urheen which the Peking opera, the Hubei opera needed, the henan zhuizi to need to fall Hu, high Hu who the Guangdong Guangdong opera needed, the coconut hu which the Chao opera needed, the big tube which the Hunan flower drum used, the four stringed fiddle which the Mongolian traditional entertainment involving talking and singing used, the lid board which the Sichuan opera used, four strings which river South Vietnam transferred, the pillow qin which the Fujian Putian play used, the ox-leg qin which Dong Xi used, the strong play used the horse bone qin, Shanxi Opera used 2 ply string and so on stringed musical instruments.Therefore, the urheen in fact is in this multitudinous stringed musical instrument one kind, after it acquires fame by far in the Chinese violin.Therefore said “the urheen” begins in Tang Dynasty is inaccurate, should say “the Chinese violin” begins in the Tang Dynasty.
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