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唢呐

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:21:06

  唢呐,又称喇叭、海笛。吹奏乐器。
  约在两晋时期(265—420),唢呐已在新疆拜城一带(古称龟兹)流传,新疆克孜尔千佛洞第三十八窟(开凿于公元三世纪)壁画中有其图象(《中国音乐史图鉴》Ⅱ—74至Ⅱ—75)。北魏时期(386—534)开凿的山西大同云岗石窟第十洞也有演奏唢呐的伎乐人雕刻。这种唢呐的哨、管身和喇叭碗成为一体,可能是其早期形态,与现代新疆维吾尔族木唢呐相近。直至明代,中原地区使用的唢呐,其结构则与现代唢呐相同。明徐渭《南词叙录》、王磐《王西楼先生乐府》、戚继光《纪效新书·武备志》均有记述。明王圻《三才图会》述其形制:“其制如喇叭,七孔;首尾以铜为之,管则用木。不知起于何代,当是军中之乐也。今民间多用之”。清代,唢呐又称金口角、苏尔奈。在宫廷中列入回部乐,并用于烧歌大乐。《律吕正义后编》、《大清会典》、《皇朝礼器图式》均注明“苏尔奈,又名唢呐”,并附图说明。在民间已广泛应用于器乐演奏、戏曲伴奏和婚丧喜庆活动。唢呐由杆、哨、气牌、侵子和碗构成。杆用红木制成,为空心圆锥体,上开八个(前七后一)圆形音孔,表面旋成竹节形状,取其美观和按孔方便。哨芦苇制,一头扁平状为簧哨,另一头圆形缠铜丝插入侵子。气牌为两块圆形铜片、有机玻璃或赛璐珞片,分上下套于侵子上,中间夹以葫芦形装饰物,上片用以托住嘴唇,下片压紧杆身,以邦助运气、使口力持久。侵子为铜制圆锥形细管,上插簧哨,下与管身相接。碗又称喇叭口,用薄铜片制成喇叭形,套于杆下端,可活动和装卸。
  品种较多,依杆的长短分为海笛、小唢呐、中唢呐、大唢呐和柏木杆五种。杆身全长18.2—31、下口内径1.8—2.65、下口外径2.4—3.45厘米。碗高7.1—13.6、上口内径2.35—3.25、下口直径8.6—14.4厘米。海笛杆短碗小,发音尖锐,音色高亢,用于器乐合奏。流行于江、浙、皖等省;小唢响音色柔和,常用的七寸杆,又称三吱子。用于独奏、合奏或歌舞伴奏,流行于两广、湘、闽、赣等省、区;中唢呐音色较柔和,常用一尺一寸杆,又称黑杆子。流行于江、浙、皖一带。困上述唢呐流传于南方各省,故称南方唢呐。大唢呐发音低沉,常用一尺五寸杆,又称大杆子或二混头。流行于东北、山海关和冀东一带;柏木杆发音清脆明亮,用以吹奏小调和咔戏(模仿戏曲唱腔)。大唢呐、柏木杆流传于北方各省,故称北方唢呐。各种唢呐音高不等,常用的有D调小唢呐,G、F调海笛,A、bB调中唢呐和大唢呐。常用音域两个八度。
  唢呐常作为领奏乐器或与锣鼓结合演奏,宜于表现热烈、欢腾的气氛。在农村用于集会、丰收、节日庆祝或婚丧仪仗;是河北吹歌、山东鼓吹、辽南鼓吹、潮州大锣鼓和山西八大套的主奏乐器。
  演奏技巧有连奏、单吐、双吐、三吐、弹音、花舌、箫音、滑音、颤音、叠音和垫音等,还可模仿飞禽鸣叫声。传统曲目多源于民歌、地方戏曲、民间小曲和戏剧曲牌。乐曲有《百鸟朝凤》、《小开门》、《一支花》、《凤阳歌绞八板》、《婚礼曲》和《小放牛》等。

  The suona ;also called laba or haidi  is a Han Chinese shawm (oboe). It has a distinctively loud and high-pitched sound, and is used frequently in Chinese traditional music ensembles, particularly those that perform outdoors. It is an important instrument in the folk music of northern China, particularly the provinces of Shandong and Henan, where it has long been used for festival and military purposes. It is still used, in combination with sheng mouth organs, gongs, drums, and sometimes other instruments, in wedding and funeral processions. Such wind and percussion ensembles are called chuida or guchui. Stephen Jones has written extensively on its use in ritual music of Shanxi province. It is also common in the ritual music of Southeast China. In Taiwan, it forms an essential element of ritual music that accompanies Daoist performances of both auspicious and inauspicious rites, i.e., those for both the living and the dead.
  The suona has a conical wooden body, but its optional, similar to that of the European oboe, but uses a tubular brass or copper bocal to which a small double reed is affixed, and possesses a detachable metal bell at its end.
  The instrument is made in several sizes. Since the mid-20th century, "modernized" versions of the suona have been developed in China; such instruments have keys similar to those of the European oboe, to allow for the playing of chromatic notes and equal tempered tuning (both of which are difficult to execute on the traditional suona). There is now a family of such instruments, including the zhongyin suona(Alto suona), cizhongyin suona(Tenor suona), and diyin suona(Bass suona). These instruments are used in the woodwind sections of modern large Chinese traditional instrument orchestras in China, Taiwan, and Singapore, though most folk ensembles prefer to use the traditional version of the instrument.
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