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葫芦丝

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:20:50

  葫芦丝,又称“葫芦箫”,傣语称“筚郎叨”(“筚”为傣语吹管乐器的泛称。“郎”为直吹之意,“叨”即葫芦),是云南少数民族乐器,主要流传于傣、彝、阿昌、德昂等民族中,富有浓郁的地方色彩。
  这种乐器用半截小葫芦作为音箱,以三根长短不一的竹管并排插在葫芦的竹管下端,嵌有铜质筑片,中间较长的一根竹管开七孔。吹奏时口吹葫芦细端,指按中间竹管的音孔,在奏出旋律的同时,左右两根竹管同时发出固定的单音,与旋律构成和音。其音乐轻柔细腻,圆润质朴,极富表现力,深受云南人民的喜爱,无论民音,还是专业舞台都能听到它演奏的优美的声音。
  葫芦箫的历史较为悠久,其渊源可追溯到先秦时代,它是由葫芦笙演进改造而成的。在构造上仍保持着古代乐器的遗制,箫管数目正与三管之龠相同,两支副管不开音孔也和古箫完全一样,而发出持续的五度音程,则与古龠的“以和众声”惟妙惟肖。但它的主管已开有7个音孔,与后世的箫笛非常近似,又显示出它在历史上的飞跃。
  新中国成立后,我国民族音乐工作者对葫芦箫进行了不断的改革。1958年,云南省歌舞团首先把音域扩展为14个音。近年来,北京的一些文艺团体又制成两种新葫芦箫。其中的六管葫芦箫,可以吹奏单音、双音、单旋律加持续音及两个和音旋律加持续音。既保持了原来乐器特有的音色和风格,又增大了音量、扩展了音域、丰富了音响色彩和表现力。

  The hulusi or cucurbit flute is a free reed wind instrument from China. It is held vertically and has three bamboo pipes which pass through a gourd wind chest; the center pipe has finger holes and the outer two are typically drone pipes. It is not uncommon for a hulusi to have only one drone pipe while the second outer pipe is merely ornamental. The drone pipe has a finger hole, which allows it to be stopped. Advanced configurations have keyed finger holes similar to a clarinet or oboe, which can greatly extend the range of thehulusi to several octaves.
  The hulusi was originally used primarily in Yunnan province by the Dai and other non-Han ethnic groups but is now played throughout China. Like the related free reed pipe called bawu, the hulusi has a very pure, clarinet-like sound.
  Although the hulusi is still predominantly performed in China, it has in recent years been adopted by European composers and performers. Rohan Leach from England, Rapheal De Cock from Belgium and Herman Witkam from the Netherlands have all taken the instrument in new directions.
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