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来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:20:37

  箫源于远古时期的骨哨,历史上亦称为笛,唐以后方专指竖吹之笛。“横吹笛子竖吹箫”,即笛箫之间最基本的差别。箫历史悠久,音色圆润轻柔,幽静典雅,适于独奏和重奏。箫笛同源于远古时期的骨哨,新石器时代开始以竹制作。在秦汉至唐,箫是指编管的排箫。
  早在《尚书·益稷》中记载有“箫韶九成,凤凰来仪。”当因韶乐伴奏乐器以箫(当时为排箫)为主而有此称。
  箫在汉代时称为“篴”、“竖篴”或“羌笛”。羌笛原为古代居住在四川、甘肃一带的羌族人民的乐器,最初只有4孔(3个音孔加管口1孔),西汉京房(字君明,公元前77~前37年)在后面加了一个最高音孔后,成为5孔箫。
  西晋乐工列和、中书监荀勖所改革的笛为6 孔(前5、后1),其形制与今天的箫已非常相似了。东晋的桓伊,擅长音乐,他有一支蔡邕的柯亭笛(箫),是江南数第一的吹箫名手,地位和声望都已很高。他曾为素不相识的王徽之吹奏过三段乐曲,在历史上被传为佳话。
  魏晋南北朝时,箫已用于独奏、合奏,并在伴奏相和歌的乐队中使用。
  清代,箫的形制与现在完全一样。清《律吕正义后编》记载:“明时乃直曰箫,不复有竖篴。今箫长一尺八寸弱,从上口吹,有后出孔;笛横吹,无后出孔。”

  The xiao is a Chinese vertical end-blown flute. It is generally made of dark brown bamboo (called "purple bamboo" in Chinese). It is also sometimes (particularly in Taiwan) called dòngxiāo, dòng meaning "hole." An ancient name for the xiāo is shùdí, but the name xiāo in ancient times also included the side-blown bamboo flute, dizi.
  The xiao is a very ancient Chinese instrument usually thought to have developed from a simple end-blown flute used by theQiang people of Southwest China in ancient period.
  Xiao are today most often pitched in the key of G (with the D above middle C being the lowest note, with all fingers covered), although xiao in other less common keys are also available, most commonly in the key of F. More traditional xiaohave six finger holes, while most modern ones have eight; the additional holes do not extend the instrument's range but instead make it easier to play notes such as F natural. There are a further four (sometimes two or six) sound holes situated at the bottom third of the length of the xiao. The blowing hole is at the top end, it may be cut into a 'U' shape, a "V" shape, or at an angle (with or without bone/ivory inlay.) Some xiao have the blowing end entirely cut off, so the player must use the space between their chin and lips to cover the hole fully. There may be a metal joint between the blow hole and the top finger hole for tuning purposes and sometimes also between the last finger hole and the end. The length of the xiao ranges from around 45 cm to over 1.25 m but is usually around 75–85 cm. Usually, shorter xiaos are more difficult to play because of the need to control one's breath more accurately. The angle to play the xiao is around 45 degrees from the body.
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