您现在的位置: 民乐国际 > 乐器百科 > 笛子

笛子

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2013-11-29 11:20:23

  笛子,又称竹笛,中国传统乐器。最早被发现的笛为贾湖文化遗址出土的7孔骨笛,约有7000年历史。笛子在民间音乐、戏曲、民族乐团、交响乐团和现代音乐中运用,一般分为南方的曲笛和北方的梆笛。笛子多为竹制,也有以木、玉等材料制笛。别称雅号:竹笛;横笛;“横吹”。
  中国乐器中的笛身一般为竹制。兽骨、玉石、金属、有机玻璃等其他材质亦可制成笛子。
  笛子属于木管乐器家族中的吹孔膜鸣乐器类。是典型的中国民族乐器。
  中国笛子历史悠久,可以追溯到新石器时代。那时先辈们点燃篝火,架起猎物,围绕捕获的猎物边进食边欢 腾歌舞,并且利用飞禽胫骨钻孔吹之(用其声音诱捕猎物和传递信号),也就诞生了出土于我国最古老的乐器——骨笛。
  1977年浙江余姚河姆渡出土了骨哨、骨笛,距今约7000年。1986年5月,在河南舞阳县贾湖村东新石器时代早期遗址中发掘出16支竖吹骨笛(用鸟禽肢骨制成),根据测定距今已有8000余年历史。音孔由五孔至八孔不等,其中以七音孔笛居多,有些音孔旁还加打了小孔,与今天的中国音调完全一致,1987年河南省舞阳县贾湖遗址出土了7孔贾湖骨笛(距今约9000年),是世界最早的可吹奏乐器。黄帝时期,即距今大约4000多年前,黄河流域生长着大量竹子,开始选竹为材料制笛,《史记》记载:“黄帝使伶伦伐竹于昆豀、斩而作笛,吹作凤鸣”,以竹为村料是笛制的一大进步,一者竹比骨振动性好,发音清脆;二者竹便于加工。秦汉时期已有了七孔竹笛,并发明了两头笛,蔡邕、荀勖、梁武帝都曾制作十二律笛,即一笛一律。
  笛在古代称为“篴”。到了汉代,许慎的《说文解字》有:“笛,七孔,竹筩也”的记载。1978年,从湖北随县曾侯乙墓出土了两支竹篪,从湖南长沙马 王堆三号汉墓出土了两支竹笛,出土的篪和古籍中记载的汉篪,除长度略有出入外,其他形制完全相同;出土的笛除与记载相同外,并在墓内的竹筒上写有篪的字 样,显然是古代竹笛,古代的篪和笛非常相似,历来有人篪、笛不分,说成是同一乐器,实际是有区别的。从出土篪、笛可以看出:篪, 6孔,闭口,能奏五声加一变化音,全身髹(xiū)漆;笛,7孔,开口,能奏七声加两个变化音,不髹漆。战国时,篪是祭神或宴亭时演奏的主要旋律乐器之一,笛也非常流行,屈原学生宋玉的《笛赋》中也曾讲到当时南方的笛,与今日之笛已十分相像。笛在汉代前多指竖吹笛,秦汉以来,笛已成为竖吹的箫和横吹的笛的共同名称,并延续了很长时期。汉武帝时,张骞通西域后传入横笛,亦称“横吹”。它在汉代的鼓吹乐中占有相当重要的地位。湖南长沙马王堆三号汉墓出土的两支竹笛,都属横吹类的笛乐器。在晋时已有竖笛,吹头加一木头,使气从缝隙中通过,射向两哨孔边陵发音。北朝时,笛子不仅极为普遍,而且有所发展,形制、长短、粗细变化较大。到了北周和隋代,开始有了“横笛”之名。隋朝后期,出现了能演奏半音阶的十孔笛。
  从唐代起,笛子还有大横吹和小横吹的区别。同时,竖吹的篪才被称为箫,横吹则称之为笛。唐朝吕才,制“尺八”,竖吹,并传入日本;在古都奈良的 正仓院中,珍藏着我国盛唐时期制作的4支横笛。其中有牙和雕石横笛各一支,竹质的两支,它们长短不同,但都开有7个椭圆形音孔。刘系作七星管笛,蒙膜助 声,是为笛加膜的第一人。从7世纪开始,笛子又有了改进,增加了膜孔,使它的表现力有了很大的发展,并且演奏技术也发展到相当高的水平。宋笛制多样,有叉手笛、龙颈笛、十一孔的小横吹、九孔的大横笛、七孔玉笛等等,随着宋词元曲的崛起,戏曲蓬勃发展,笛子成为很多剧种的伴奏乐器,并按伴奏剧种不同分为两类:梆笛和曲笛。在民间戏曲以及少数民族剧种的乐队里,笛子也是不可缺少的乐器。
  20世纪六十年代,赵松庭发明排笛,将2至4根不同调的笛子扎在一起,音域可扩大三个八度以上,音乐富于变化,易于演奏。从1971年新生的"口笛"(又名俞氏笛)到1977年浙江河姆渡出土的 "骨哨"、"骨笛",人们惊奇地发现二者之间竟有如此的相似.而这个相似却走过了七千多年的历程.笛子在这七千多年历程中的沿革和发展不由令世界惊叹:中国竹笛艺术是如此地魂丽多姿.历代文人曾为它写下了无数美妙的诗篇舞幽壑之潜蛟,泣孤舟之嫠妇,促杜工部潸然肠断,使喻成龙鬓发成霜。中国笛子具有强烈的民族特色,发音动人、婉回。古人谓"荡涤之声", 故笛子原名为“涤”,日本至今还保留有"涤笛",后演变为如今的笛。笛子是中国民族乐队中重要的旋律乐器,多用于独奏,也可参与合奏。

  The dizi , is a Chinese transverse flute. It is also sometimes known as the di or hengdi, and has varieties including the qudi and bangdi .
  These names are likely to have multiple spellings, too, depending on the transliteration used to convert from Chinese names. Nonetheless, dizi seems to be the most common name (and written form) used in the West.
  The dizi is a major Chinese musical instrument, and is widely used in many genres of Chinese folk music, as well as Chinese opera, and the modern Chinese orchestra. Traditionally, the dizi has also been popular among the Chinese common people, and it is simple to make and easy to carry.
  Most dizi are made of bamboo, which explains why dizi are sometimes known by simple names such as Chinese bamboo flute. However, "bamboo" is perhaps more of a Chinese instrument classification like "woodwind" in the West. Northern Chinese dizi are made from purple or violet bamboo, while dizi made in Suzhou and Hangzhou are made from white bamboo. Dizi produced in southern Chinese regions such as Chaozhou are often made of very slender, lightweight, light-colored bamboo and are much quieter in tone.
Although bamboo is the common material for the dizi, it is also possible to find dizi made from other kinds of wood, or even from stone. Jade dizi (or yudi) are popular among both collectors interested in their beauty, and among professional players who seek an instrument with looks to match the quality of their renditions; however, jade may not be the best material for dizi since, as with metal, jade may not be as tonally responsive as bamboo, which is more resonant.
  The dizi is not the only bamboo flute of China, although it is certainly distinctive. Other Chinese bamboo wind instruments include the vertical end-blown xiao and the koudi.
分享到:
更多