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扬琴

来源:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心作者:中国民乐国际网信息采集中心发表时间:2014-03-08 11:52:43

  扬琴,击弦乐器。又称洋琴、打琴、铜丝琴、扇面琴、蝙蝠琴、蝴蝶琴。 
  中国扬琴是中国乐器中唯一的世界性乐器。琴身呈梯形,以竹质双槌击弦振动发音,音色清脆悦耳,悠扬动听。大约在明朝由中东传入中国,起初流行于广东一带。这个乐器最早源于中东阿拉伯、波斯地区,当时称之为桑图尔Santur,最后流传到欧洲、北美及大洋洲,有德西马Dulcimer,钦巴龙Cimbalon,海克布里Hackbrete及萨特瑞Psaltery等名称。在中国,更因其外观貌似蝴蝶,演奏时双手持拿的琴竹,舞动如触角,而有蝴蝶琴之美称。
  现代改良后的中国大扬琴,音响丰富,音域宽广,可演奏和弦、快速音、半音阶及各类特殊技巧,在合奏中是一件极重要的乐器,独奏方面亦极有特色与表现。
  扬琴是中国民族乐队中必不可少的乐器。无论用于独奏、伴奏还是合奏,扬琴的音色特点都可得到淋漓尽致的发挥。扬琴又称"洋琴",是中国常用的一种击弦乐器,与钢琴同宗,音色具有鲜明的特点,音量宏大, 刚柔并济;但个性又不是很强,因此容易与其他乐器融合。慢奏时 音色如叮咚的山泉,快奏时音色又如潺潺流水。它的音色清脆明亮,表现力极为丰富,可以独奏、合奏或为琴书、说唱和戏曲伴奏,在民间器乐合奏和民族乐队中占有重要的地位。
  据史书记载,中世纪以前,中东的亚速、波斯等古代阿拉伯国家,流行着一种击弦乐器,名叫萨泰里琴。明朝(1368~1644年),随着中国和西亚、东亚间日趋密切的友好往来,萨泰里琴由波斯经海路传入我国,最初只流行在广东一带,后来逐渐扩散到中国各地。后来经过中国民间艺人的改造,萨泰里琴渐渐演化成为中国的民族乐器——扬琴。清末以来,扬琴用于广东音乐、江南丝竹、扬州清曲、广西文场、常德丝弦、四川琴书、河南琴书、山东琴书、榆林小曲等乐种、曲种。
  传统扬琴,框架用色木、桦木或榆木制,上蒙白松或桐木面板,下蒙胶合板,音箱呈蝴蝶形或扁梯形。长90~97厘米、宽32~41厘米、高5.7~7厘米。左侧琴头设拴弦钩钉,右侧琴头置弦轴。面板上开两个圆形音孔,并镶骨雕音窗为饰。上置两个用竹、红木或牛角制、呈峰谷状条形琴码,左为高音码,右为低音码,峰部用以支弦,谷部有另一码上的琴弦通过。面板两侧设红木制直线或锯齿形长条山口,用以架弦。音箱内对应面板琴码部位胶有音梁,音梁上开四或五个圆形风眼,以使音波对流。张钢丝弦,高音用裸弦,低音用缠弦。琴竹又称琴箭、琴签,为两支有弹性的竹制小棰。常用扬琴有八音(实发二十四音)、十音(实发三十音)、十二音(实发三十六音)三种。又称双八型、双十型、双十二型。音域分别为:八音f1—c2,十音d1—d3,十二音c—e3。
  扬琴在中国已经流传和演化了四百多年了。在这期间,中国的乐器制作家研制出了不少扬琴的新品种,比如像变音扬琴、转调扬琴、筝扬琴和电声扬琴等。

  The trapezoidal yangqin is a Chinesehammered dulcimer, originally from Persia (modern-day Iran). It used to be written with the characters (lit. "foreign zither"), but over time the first character changed to (also pronounced "yáng"), which means "acclaimed". It is also spelled yang quin or yang ch'in. Hammered dulcimers of various types are now very popular not only in China, but also Eastern Europe, the Middle East, India, Iran, and Pakistan. The instruments are also sometimes known by the names "santur" and "cymbalom".
  The yangqin was traditionally fitted with bronze strings (though older Chinese stringed instruments used silk strings, resulting in their, and the yangqin's, categorisation as a silk, or "si" instrument), which gave the instrument a soft timbre. This form of instrument is still occasionally heard today in the "hudie qin" ( lit. "butterfly zither") played in the traditional silk and bamboo genre from the Shanghai region known asJiangnan sizhu as well as in some Cantonese music groups. The Thai and Cambodian khim are nearly identical in their construction, having been introduced to those nations by southern Chinese musicians. Since the 1950s, however, steel alloy strings (in conjunction with copper-wound steel strings for the bass notes) have been used, in order to give the instrument a brighter, and louder tone. The modern yangqin can have as many as five courses of bridges and may be arranged chromatically. Traditional instruments, with three or more courses of bridges, are also still widely in use. The instrument's strings are struck with two lightweight bamboo beaters (also known as hammers) with rubber tips. A professional musician often carries several sets of beaters, each of which draws a slightly different tone from the instrument, much like the drum sticks of Western percussionists.
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